Professor Bailey is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology's Center for the Study of Human Origins and an Associated Scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. Bailey's research focuses on dental perspectives on human evolution, especially Neandertals and early modern humans. She has worked extensively on Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Europe, including the earliest known modern humans from the site of Pestera cu Oase in Romania. She has studied the Homo floresiensis (a.k.a. "hobbit) fossils, as well as some of the earliest Homo sapiens in Africa. Bailey's current research is on the evolution of childhood, which comprises a systemmatic and comparative study of the deciduous dentition (baby or primary teeth). Her books include a co-edited volume (with Jean-Jacques Hublin) on Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution with Springer Press and The Evolution of the Human Dentition (in progress). In addition to fossil hominins, she is involved in projects investigating dental variation and systematics of extant hominoids.